The review of literature reveals that a complete checklist on the butterfly fauna of Bhutan has never been published. A few studies have been conducted on butterflies of Bhutan, however, a comprehensive list on butterfly fauna is currently not available. The present study aims to provide precise data on the known butterfly fauna of Bhutan. This document presents a checklist based on the review of available literature on the butterflies of Bhutan. It comprises 670 species; Papilionidae (55 species), Pieridae (51 species), Lycaenidae (160 species), Nymphalidae (265 species), and Hesperiidae (139 species). Of these, 182species (Papilionidae (16 species), Pieridae (10 species), Lycaenidae (38 species), Nymphalidae (93 species) and Hesperiidae (25 species) are listed as rare or very rare in Indian literature, which does not mean they are rare in Bhutan. 120 species are protected under different schedules of Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 2002. None of the butterfly species reported from Bhutan are included in the protected schedules of Forest and Nature Conservation Rules, 2006 of Bhutan except Bhutanitis ludlowi Gabriel, 1942 (Ludlow’s Bhutan Glory).Inventory research activities of butterfly fauna through participation of specialists, amateur lepidopterists and relevant authorities in all parts of Bhutan is necessary and advisable.